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There is typically a factor of 2 to 3 difference between the lowest and highest losses. The actual loss is the sum of the localized losses and by far the largest volume of steel is subjected to rotational flux which accounts for around 25% to 50% of the stator core of a typical induction motor or synchronous generator. The flux and loss distributions in large motor and generator stators assembled from segments depends on the type of material used (grain-oriented or non-oriented electrical steel) and the stacking method (21).

This condition is magnetic saturation. If the external field is applied at an angle to the rolling direction in the plane of the sheet, magnetization will be more difficult and domains oriented along [010] and [100] will have to expand in volume (from an initial small fraction). This is a far more lossy process and a higher magnetic field will be needed so the bulk magnetic characteristics will be similar to those shown in Fig. 3. When magnetic domain walls move through the steel sheet electromotive forces (emfs) are induced opposing the motion of the walls and creating eddy currents which are the source of the I2 R core loss occurring under ac magnetization.

Figure 16 compares the measured locus of the fundamental components of flux density in cores assembled from grain-oriented silicon-iron and from amorphous magnetic material which is almost isotropic. The flux is far more uniform in the core assembled from the amorphous material and full rotational magnetization occurring at the T-joints ensures uniform flux transfer between yokes and limbs. In this particular T-joint no rotational flux occurs in the grain-oriented steel core and the flux remains in the rolling direction.

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33.Magnetics by John G. Webster (Editor)

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