By Vivienne Saunders
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Extra resources for Access to History. Race Relations in the USA 1863-1980
They clashed over bills to improve the Freedmen Bureau (set up by Congress in 1865 to help ex-slaves, particularly through education) and to give blacks civil rights. Both bills became acts in 1866, despite Johnson’s veto. Congress then adopted the 14th Amendment, which struck down the Black Codes, guaranteed all citizens equality before the law, and declared that the federal government could intervene if any states tried to deny rights of citizenship to any citizen. The Amendment banned most of the old Confederate élite from holding ofﬁce.
Southern black leaders were usually moderates who had no desire to exclude ex-Confederates from ofﬁce. The Civil War, Reconstruction and Jim Crow 1861–1900 | 27 Key date (iii) How and why black voting was stopped by the 1890s Mississippi successfully introduced income and literacy qualiﬁcations that stopped blacks voting: 1890 Key question Did blacks gain social equality during Reconstruction? Although slavery had been abolished, Southerners still believed in the arguments that had justiﬁed it.
Washington and the ‘decades of disappointment’ 1880–1915 Key dates 1868 Northern whites established Hampton Institute to educate freed blacks 1881 Booker T. Washington appointed Principal of Tuskegee 1883 Booker T. Washington ﬁrst black to address national education conference 1887 Tennessee Supreme Court decided against Wells in railroad carriage segregation case 1892 Ida B. Wells had to leave the South because of her anti-lynching campaign 1895 Booker T. B. Du Bois became a professor at Atlanta University 1900 Booker T.
Access to History. Race Relations in the USA 1863-1980 by Vivienne Saunders