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By Lee J.

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The relative magnitude of the changes in voltage at the generator and sensor coils is generally very low and thus difficult to detect. However, the signal should be as clear as possible so that the security element can be reliably detected. This is achieved using a bit of a trick: the frequency of the magnetic field generated is not constant, it is ‘swept’. This means that the generator frequency continuously crosses the range between minimum and maximum. 2 MHz ± 10% (J¨orn, 1994). 3). Frequency tolerances of the security element, which depend upon manufacturing tolerances and vary in the presence of a metallic environment, no longer play a role as a result of the ‘scanning’ of the entire frequency range.

RFID systems with a very small range, typically in the region of up to 1 cm, are known as closecoupling systems. For operation the transponder must either be inserted into the reader or positioned upon a surface provided for this purpose. Close-coupling systems are coupled using both electric and magnetic fields and can theoretically be operated at any desired frequency between DC and 30 MHz because the operation of the transponder does not rely upon the radiation of fields. The close coupling between data carrier and reader also facilitates the provision of greater amounts of power and so even a microprocessor with nonoptimal power consumption, for example, can be operated.

Simple diffused diodes can be used to produce higher harmonics (Fleckner, 1987). 5). 45 GHz the dipole has a total length of 6 cm. 6 GHz. If the transponder is located within the transmitter’s range, then the flow of current within the diode generates and re-emits harmonics of the carrier wave. Particularly distinctive signals are obtained at two or three times the carrier wave, depending upon the type of diode used. 45 GHz 1-bit transponder Microwave tag in the interrogation zone of a detector Transponders of this type cast in plastic (hard tags) are used mainly to protect textiles.

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An optimal selection of induction heater capacitance considering dissipation loss caused by ESR by Lee J.

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