By Michiel Steyaert (Editor), Arthur H.M. van Roermund (Editor), Johan H. Huijsing (Editor)
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Extra resources for Analog Circuit Design: Structured Mixed-Mode Design, Multi-Bit Sigma-Delta Converters, Short Range RF Circuits
The proposed generic models are: 1. A non-linear two-port model using generalized non-linear (voltage-controlled) i – v relations will be used for investigating the influence of error-reduction techniques on non-linear behavior: where we use associated directions for voltages and currents. The fact that we have to supply DC power to the actual device in order to obtain power amplification, can be made explicit by defining an operating point characterized by: For excursions from this operating point, to be marked by a tilde (~), a power amplification in these devices is possible, provided that we have chosen the correct operating conditions.
Not only will the real values all shift due to technology variations over different batches (“tolerances”), also their relative values will vary (“mismatch”). These restrictions are usually solved by applying tuning to one so called master gm. The other gm’s (so called slaves) that constitute the filter, are then matched to this one tuned gm. However, matching arbitrarily different gm values yields poor results. Therefore, it is better to also limit the gm values of the slaves to integer multiples of the master gm.
Active feedback configurations use active devices in their feedback network(s) which may introduce unacceptable non-linearity or noise. Indirect feedback normally has a large influence both on the noise and the power dissipation and is therefore the least attractive feedback technique. It should be avoided in LNAs as much as possible. For quantitative aspects of these types of feedback we refer to . Before we will discuss the design of some basic LNA examples, we will briefly address some modeling considerations.
Analog Circuit Design: Structured Mixed-Mode Design, Multi-Bit Sigma-Delta Converters, Short Range RF Circuits by Michiel Steyaert (Editor), Arthur H.M. van Roermund (Editor), Johan H. Huijsing (Editor)